SID & STAR

اذهب الى الأسفل

SID & STAR

مُساهمة من طرف Ahmed Motamed في السبت مايو 24, 2008 8:02 pm

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الاعضاء الاعزاء
اقدم اليكم مشروع تخرجى
وهو عن (SID & STAR)

وهو بيوضح مفهوم SID & STAR وهو نظام بيستخدم فى الاقتراب Approch وده فى حالة كثافة الحركة الجوية

اتمنى انه يعجبكم ويوضح لكم مفهوم الــــــ SID & STAR

وده البريسنتيشن الخاص بالمشروع

4shared.com/file/46676280/3c2f8702/SID__STAR.html

والشرح فى الاسفل

وطبعا لازم اشكر زملائى اللى شاركونى فى المشروع

الكابتن \ أحمد مسعد عبد الرشيد
الكابتن \ أحمد محمود مختار


وياريت تتحفونا برودودكم

_________________
Perfect Separation And Safety Is My Target In This Life


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Ahmed Motamed
مـــــــديـــــر
مـــــــديـــــر

عدد الرسائل : 123
العمر : 31
تاريخ التسجيل : 04/05/2008

معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

رد: SID & STAR

مُساهمة من طرف Ahmed Motamed في السبت مايو 24, 2008 8:04 pm

ATS Routs

Any aircraft want to fly on the most direct route between their points of departure and their destination because the medium in which aircraft operate makes this possible, except when severe weather phenomena are encountered. However, because of the many conflicting demands made on the use of airspace by its many different users and because of environmental and security considerations, it is frequently not possible to fly the most direct route . Therefore it is necessary to find a reasonable compromise between this desirable objective and reality.

Standard departure (SID) and standard arrival (STAR)

They are routes established to facilitate the maintenance of a safe, orderly and expeditious flow of air traffic the description of the route and procedures in ATC clearances. such routings in TMAs will normally be required only at the busier aerodromes where the initial departure and/or arrival routing may be complex in view of the use made of runways and/or the variable relationship between the departure and arrival patterns used under different meteorological and/or traffic conditions. Once the requirement for such routes has been determined it should be ensured that their alignment is such that flight along them does not require excessive navigational skill on the part of pilots nor should they put the aircraft into a state which approaches its minimum safe operation with regard to speed and/or changes of direction. Such considerations are essential because, when using these routes, pilots find themselves in a critical phase of their flight and the cockpit workload is already heavy after take-off or when preparing for a landing.

The need to take into account noise abatement at certain aerodromes has become an important issue. Appropriate SIDs and STARs should be reviewed in the context of special noise abatement procedures and/or manoeuvres to ensure that they are fully integrated and constitute a coherent operational entity serving both purposes. In addition, noise abatement procedures should not jeopardize the safe and efficient conduct of the aircraft flight phase in question.

The question of designation of SIDs and STARs is similarities between different designators. However, in selecting necessary to consider pronunciation problems caused by designators in accordance with these provisions, care must the fact that pilots with different mother tongues may be taken to ensure that no confusion will arise in their pronounce designators differently in their voice communipractical use in voice communications because of close cations with the ATC unit assigning a SID or STAR.




The establishment of standard departure and arrival routes

Standard departure and arrival routes should :

1- segregate traffic operating along different routes, and such traffic from traffic in holding patterns;

2- provide for adequate terrain clearance


3- be compatible with established radio communication failure procedures

4- take account of noise abatement procedures


5- provide for the shortest practical tracks


6- provide for uninterrupted climb or descent to operationally advantageous levels with a minimum of restrictions


7- be compatible with the performance and navigation capabilities of aircraft


8- be designed so as to derive maximum economic and operational benefit from high performance and advanced navigation capabilities of aircraft.



The routes should involve a minimum of air-ground radio communications and reduce as much as possible cockpit and ATC workload. Standard departure and arrival routes should normally be completely contained within controlled airspace.

For routes requiring navigation with reference to ground-based radio navigation facilities, the following should apply:

a) they should relate to published facilities only;

b) the number of facilities should be kept to the minimum necessary for navigation along the route and for compliance with the procedure;

c) they should require navigational reference to no more than two facilities at the same time.


The routes should normally be designed for use by aircraft operating in accordance with IFR. Separate routes designed for use by controlled flights operating in accordance with VFR may be established.

The number of standard departure and arrival routes to be established at an aerodrome should be kept to a minimum.


Standard departure and arrival routes - instrument


Standard instrument departure routes should link the aerodrome or a specified runway of the aerodrome with a specified significant point at which the en-route phase of a flight along a designated ATS route can be commenced.


Standard instrument arrival routes should permit transition from the en-route phase to the approach phase by linking a significant point on an ATS route with a point near the aerodrome from which:

a) a published standard instrument approach procedure can be commenced;
b) the final part of a published instrument approach procedure can be carried out; or
c) a visual approach to a non-instrument runway can be initiated;
d) the aerodrome traffic circuit can be joined.

Each standard instrument departure and arrival route should be established and published as an integral route. Any deviation of a permanent nature should be published as a separate route.

Standard instrument departure and arrival routes should be designed so as to permit aircraft to navigate along the routes without radar vectoring. In high density terminal areas, where complex traffic flows prevail due to the number of aerodromes and runways, radar procedures may be used to vector aircraft to or from a significant point on a published standard departure or arrival route, provided that:

1-procedures are published which specify the action to be taken by vectored aircraft in the event of radio communication failure, and

2-adequate ATC, procedures are established which ensure the safety of air traffic in the event of radar failure.





The routes should identify the significant points where:

a) a departure route terminates or an arrival route begins;

b) the specified track changes;

c) any level or speed restrictions apply or no longer apply.



Where the route requires a specified track to be followed, adequate navigational guidance should be provided.

Significant points of standard instrument departure and arrival routes requiring navigation with reference to ground-based radio navigation facilities, particularly points where a change of track is specified, should, whenever possible, be established at positions marked by the site of a radio navigation facility, preferably a VHF aid. When this is not possible, the significant points should be established at positions defined by:

a) VOR/DME; or

b) VOR/DME and a VOR radial; or

c) intersections of VOR radials.

The use of NDB bearings should be kept to a minimum, and fan markers should not be used.

Significant points established at positions defined by VOR/DME should relate to a VOR/DME facility defining the track to be flown.

The radio navigation facility to be used for initial track guidance on a standard instrument departure route should be identifiable in the aircraft prior to take-off.

Taking into account that the period immediately after take-off is one of high cockpit workload, the first significant point of a standard instrument departure route which requires reference to a radio navigation facility

should, if possible, be established at a distance of a least 2 NM from the end of the runway.

Level restrictions, if any, should be expressed in terms of minimum and/or maximum levels at which significant points are to be crossed.

The designation of significant points as reporting points (compulsory or on request) should be kept to a minimum.

Standard instrument departure and arrival routes should be established in consultation with the representatives of the users and other parties concerned.

_________________
Perfect Separation And Safety Is My Target In This Life


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Ahmed Motamed
مـــــــديـــــر
مـــــــديـــــر

عدد الرسائل : 123
العمر : 31
تاريخ التسجيل : 04/05/2008

معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

رد: SID & STAR

مُساهمة من طرف Ahmed Motamed في السبت مايو 24, 2008 8:22 pm



STANDARD INSTRUMENT DEPARTURES

A SID is normally developed to accommodate as many aircraft categories as possible. The SID terminates at the first fix/facility/waypoint of the en-route phase following the departure procedure.

There are two basic types of departure route: straight and turning. Departure routes are based on track guidance acquired within 20.0 km (10.8 NM) from the departure end of the runway (DER) on straight departures and within 10.0 km (5.4 NM) after completion of turns on departures requiring turns. The design of instrument departure routes and the associated obstacle clearance departure routes and the associated obstacle clearance criteria are based on the definition of tracks to be followed by the aeroplane. When flying the published track, the pilot is expected to correct for known wind to remain within the protected airspace.


STRAIGHT DEPARTURES

A straight departure is one in which the initial departure track is within 15" of the alignment of the runway
centre line.

Track guidance may be provided by a suitably located facility (VOR or NDB) or by RNAV.


When obstacles exist affecting the departure route, procedure design gradients greater than 3.3 percent are promulgated to an altitude height after which the 3.3 per cent gradient is considered to prevail. Gradients to a height of 60 m (200 ft) or less, caused by close-in obstacles, are not specified.


TURNING DEPARTURES

When a departure route requires a turn more than 15", a turning area is constructed. Turns may be specified at an altitude height, at a fix and at a facility. Straight flight is assumed until reaching an altitude height of at least 120 m (394 ft), or 90 m (295 ft) for helicopters, above the elevation of the DER. No provision is made in this document for turning departures requiring a turn below 120 m (394 ft), or 90 m (295 ft) for helicopters, above the elevation of the DER. Where the location and/or height of obstacles precludes the construction of turning departures which satisfy the minimum turn height criterion, departure procedures should be developed on a local basis in consultation with the operators concerned.
A turn is prescribed upon reaching a specified altitude height to accommodate the situation where there is:

a) an obstacle located in the direction of the straight departure which must be avoided; and\or

b) another obstacle located abeam the straight departure track which must be over flown after the turn with the appropriate margin.


In such a case, the procedure will require a climb to a specified altitude height before initiating the turn as specified (heading or track guidance).



Turn areas at a facility or DME distance are constructed in the same manner, and using the same parameters as for the missed approach, except that the speeds employed are the final missed approach speeds listed in Tables III-1-1 and 111-1-2, increased by 10 per cent to account for increased airplane mass in departure (see Table 11-2-1). In exceptional cases, where acceptable terrain clearances cannot otherwise be provided, turning departure routes are constructed with maximum speeds as low as the intermediate missed approach speed increased by 10 per cent, in such cases the procedure is annotated with a cautionary


عدل سابقا من قبل Ahmed Motamed في السبت مايو 24, 2008 8:30 pm عدل 1 مرات

_________________
Perfect Separation And Safety Is My Target In This Life


avatar
Ahmed Motamed
مـــــــديـــــر
مـــــــديـــــر

عدد الرسائل : 123
العمر : 31
تاريخ التسجيل : 04/05/2008

معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

رد: SID & STAR

مُساهمة من طرف Ahmed Motamed في السبت مايو 24, 2008 8:32 pm

STANDARD INSTRUMENT ARRIVALS

When necessary or where an operational advantage is obtained, arrival routes from the en-route phase to a fix or facility used in the procedure are published. When arrival routes are published, the width of the associated area decreases from the “en-route’’ value until the “initial approach” value with a convergence angle of 30” each side of the axis. This convergence begins at 46 km (25 NM) before the IAF if the length of the arrival route is greater than or equal to 46 km (25 NM). It begins at the starting point of the arrival route if the length of the arrival route is less than 46 km (25 NM). The arrival route normally ends at the initial approach fix. Omnidirectional or sector arrivals can be provided taking into account minimum sector altitudes (MSA)

Terminal radar is a suitable complement to published arrival routes. When terminal radar is employed

the aircraft is vectored to a fix, or onto the intermediate or final approach track, at a point where the approach may be continued by the pilot through reference to the instrument approach chart.

Obstacle clearance is B primary safety consideration in the development of instrument approach procedures. The

criteria used and the detailed method of calculation is covered in PANS-OPS, Volume 11. However, from the operational point of view it is stressed that the obstacle clearance applied in the development of each instrument
approach procedure is considered t o he the minimum required for an acceptable level of safety in operations. The protected areas and obstacle clearance applicable to individual types of approaches are specified in subsequent chapters of this part.

_________________
Perfect Separation And Safety Is My Target In This Life


avatar
Ahmed Motamed
مـــــــديـــــر
مـــــــديـــــر

عدد الرسائل : 123
العمر : 31
تاريخ التسجيل : 04/05/2008

معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

رد: SID & STAR

مُساهمة من طرف Ahmed Motamed في السبت مايو 24, 2008 8:34 pm

GNSS and RNAV SIDs and STARs
The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is being progressively used throughout the world to overcome many of the limitations of today’s air navigation infrastructure .


With its accurate, seamless, all-weather three-dimensional coverage, GNSS offers a satellite navigation service that satisfies many of the Area Navigation (RNAV) requirements.
RNAV is becoming the predominant method of navigation in the en-route, terminal and approach phases of flight. Where operations require tighter confinement with a higher degree of integrity, area navigation that supports on-board performance monitoring and alerting, referred to as RNP, is desired.
The curriculum covers the goals and benefits of area navigation, and the ICAO vision for RNAV and RNP operations, the Performance Based Navigation concept, ICAO Navigation Specifications and the types of area navigation systems.
Since GNSS is becoming the prevalent area navigation system, particularly in ground-based NAVAID poor environments, all GNSS elements and components such as receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM) are explained in sufficient detail.

The curriculum also addresses ARINC leg types, and concepts such as ‘to-to’ navigation and ‘fly-by’ and ‘fly over’ turns
RNAV STARs and SIDs enable more efficient flight trajectories for operators. ATC separation and controlling aircraft on RNAV STARs and SIDs, and RNAV(GNSS) approaches is also discussed. The curriculum includes practical examples that aim to instil confidence in controlling aircraft on different types of RNAV operations.


_________________
Perfect Separation And Safety Is My Target In This Life


avatar
Ahmed Motamed
مـــــــديـــــر
مـــــــديـــــر

عدد الرسائل : 123
العمر : 31
تاريخ التسجيل : 04/05/2008

معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

رد: SID & STAR

مُساهمة من طرف Ahmed Motamed في السبت مايو 24, 2008 8:35 pm

كده خلاص انتهى الكلام

_________________
Perfect Separation And Safety Is My Target In This Life


avatar
Ahmed Motamed
مـــــــديـــــر
مـــــــديـــــر

عدد الرسائل : 123
العمر : 31
تاريخ التسجيل : 04/05/2008

معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

رد: SID & STAR

مُساهمة من طرف Hany Adel في الإثنين مايو 26, 2008 11:35 pm

انا برد لان الشكل يستاهل رد
لكن علشان اشكرك على المعلومات اللى موجودة فيه لازم اقرأه كله الاول
الف شكر على انك ما بخلتش علينا بيه
وبجد الموضوع نفسى اشوفه من زمان من ايام الاعداد
وان شاء الله انتظر ردى بالنسبة للمضمون بعد الانتهاء من قرأته
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Hany Adel
مـــــــديـــــر
مـــــــديـــــر

عدد الرسائل : 183
العمر : 31
تاريخ التسجيل : 08/05/2008

معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة

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